Mother dies during birth
Mother rejects the puppies once they are born
Interference from humans during the birthing
Mother not producing enough milk
Runts – often pushed out in favour of bigger, healthier pups
Mother is ill and cannot care for puppies
Helping an inexperienced mother
Incubator or box that is small and warm
A heat mat to keep the pups at the right temperature
Newspaper or paper towels to line the box
Notebook and pen for recordings
Bottles and teats - various sizes
Cotton wool or tissue for toileting
A bin to discard rubbish
Goats milk or puppy formula/colostrums
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Puppy bowls – food and water
Teddy for solitary pups
Blankets or towels. Non snag material
Coloured ribbons for identification purposes
IngalinnAccommodating the newborns
The puppies can be kept in either a lined box or incubator. With the box a heat mat should be placed under a towel at one end, this allows the puppies to be comfortable at all times. If they are bundled together this is usually a sign they are too cold whilst sleeping far apart they may be too warm.
An incubator is expensive but can be set to an exact temperature with only the need of some towels or lining.
Puppies under the age of two weeks are unable to stabilise their own body heat and require the heat of their mother’s body. If kept in an incubator the temperature should be at 29-32c with at least 55% humidity but not over 65%.
At one week of age their rectal temperature should be at 37.8c so remember to regularly check their temperatures, if it drops it could indicate illness or feeding issues.
After a week the temperature can be dropped slightly to 27C then to 22C when they reach four weeks of age. At this point they will be growing fast and can be moved to a small room where they can move around. Ensure there is always water provided in a stable, shallow bowl. 3thehardwayFeeding and Weaning
When possible puppies should always feed from their mother in the first 24 hours of birth. The mother releases a milk called Colostrum which is rich in antibodies that help them fight against bacteria and illness. Puppies that do not receive their colostrums tend to get sick more often and more quickly than those that did and it can be fatal. It is now possible to buy colostrum in pet store.
From then one it is possible to buy puppy replacement milk much like baby milk they would need to be fed to them every three to four hours depending on the size of the pups, a runt may need a bit more help than the bigger ones. By four weeks this can be reduced to every six to eight hours.
There are a range of bottles and teats available in stores that can be used to feed puppies. Make sure to hold the bottle upside down at an angle so that there is no air bubbles in the formula and it’s a more natural position for the pups.
When your pups reach three weeks you can start weaning them off onto solid food. A general good first meal would be goat milk and baby rice mashed up. This has a lovely creamy taste and is nice a squishy.
Another suggestion is to blend dry puppy food and adding 12.5oz of puppy milk replacer, topping the remainder of the blender with hot water and blending to a mush. Over time you can reduce the amount of fluid until they are ready for wet puppy food or dry puppy mix. NastyCondomHygiene and Health
Newborn puppies are unable to excrete by themselves and require their mother’s tongues to stimulate them. As a substitute you can use cotton wool or tissue dipped in a little warm water which should be brushed over their genitals and anus. This should be done before and after every meal and the excrement should be checked for colour and consistency.
Puppy urine should be pale yellow or clear, if it is dark yellow or orange they may not be getting enough fluids.
Faeces should be yellowish brown with a jam-like consistency. If any strange colouring or diarrhoea occur then the puppy should be taken to the vet in case of illness or dehydration.
At three weeks of age puppies should be able to pass urine and stools on their own and should have an area they can go to relieve themselves as they do not like pooping where they sleep.
Make sure this space is cleaned regularly and daily (at least 3-4 times) to prevent bacteria and flies. DreamEyce
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